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              Health Monitoring Program

              Facility Control and Maintenance

              Mice intended for export are housed in a strictly controlled barrier facility with limited access granted only to trained laboratory and animal care personnel via key card access. Personal protective equipment, including disposable gowns, shoe covers, gloves, hair bonnets, and masks, is required for entry into the facility. Animal care personnel are dedicated to the facility and/or room to ensure strict adherence to facility protocol. Mice are housed in positive-pressure, individually ventilated cages/units (IVC/U) that are changed every 1-2 weeks. Corncob bedding and paper nest enrichment are provided to the mice, and irradiated feed is supplied. Prior to use, all caging, bedding, and enrichment are autoclaved to ensure sterility. An Edstrom automatic watering system supplies processed water (reverse osmosis, chlorinated). Once mice leave the barrier facility, they cannot return.

              Health Status

              The mice housed in the GemPharmatech facility maintain a specified and opportunistic pathogen-free (SOPF) status or germ-free (GF) status. The health status of the animals is meticulously monitored through various methods, including the use of sentinel mice, random sampling within the colony, and exhaust air dusts (EAD) testing. Detailed information regarding these monitoring procedures is described below.

              Sentinel mice: The health status of all colonies is monitored on a quarterly basis using sentinel mice. These sentinel cages contain two female mice aged between 4-6 weeks. Biweekly, the sentinel mice are exposed to soiled bedding collected from cages within their respective racks. The soiled bedding samples are pooled from multiple cages. Each rack unit contains 70 or 80 cages, and the sentinel mice are housed two per cage on each side of the rack unit. The results of these tests are reported as the number of positive samples out of the total number of testing samples. The health monitoring program includes necropsy examinations, detection of parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

              Colony random sample testing: To detect any potential microbiological issues within the colony, live mice, feces, or oral swabs are randomly sampled from immunodeficient mice and large colonies such as C57BL/6, BALB/c ,NCG mice, etc.

              EAD testing: Monthly, exhaust air dust is collected for pathogen detection through EAD testing.

              Importing Animals

              For imported mice, only animals that are specific pathogen-free (SPF) are accepted. However, they must undergo rederivation and testing before being released into the barrier facility. These animals are initially quarantined in isolators, and samples such as hair, feces, or serology samples are collected and submitted to the GemPharmatech microbial testing center for analysis. Only after passing microbial tests can the animals be transported to the breeding rooms via cesarean section or embryo transfer.

              VIRUSES Method
              Mouse Thymic Virus (MTV) PCR
              Ectromelia virus (Ect) PCR
              Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) ELISA
              Sendai virus (SV) ELISA
              Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) ELISA
              Reovirus-3 (Reo-3) ELISA/PCR
              Minute virus of mice (MVM) PCR
              Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) ELISA/PCR
              Hantavirus (HV) ELISA/PCR
              Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) ELISA/PCR
              Mouse Adenovirus FL (MAD1) PCR
              Mouse Adenovirus K87 (MAD 2) PCR
              Polyoma Virus (POLY) ELISA/PCR
              Mouse Parvovirus (MPV) PCR
              Mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) PCR
              Murine Norovirus (MNV) PCR
              Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice (EDIM) PCR
              K virus PCR
              LDH elevating virus (LDV) PCR
              Murine chapparvovirus (MKPV) PCR
              BACTERIA & MYCOPLASMA Method
              Proteus mirabilis Culture
              Pasteurella multocida Culture
              Klebsiella oxytoca Culture
              Filobacterium rodentium (CAR Bacillus) PCR
              Helicobacter spp. (e.g. H. hepaticus, H. bilis, H. muridarum, H. rodentium) PCR
              Pneumocystis spp. PCR
              Citrobacter rodentium Culture
              Bordetella Bronchus Culture
              Mycoplasma spp. PCR
              Salmonella spp. Culture
              Mycoplasma?pulmonis PCR
              Corynebacterium?kutscheri Culture
              Tyzzer's?organism PCR
              Pasteurella?pneumotropica (Rodentibacter pneumotropicus, Rodentibacter heylii) Culture
              Klebsiella pneumoniae Culture
              Staphylococcus aureus Culture
              Pseudomonas aeruginosa Culture
              Pathogenic dermal fungi PCR
              Streptobacillus moniliformis Culture
              Corynebacterium?bovis PCR
              PARASITES & PROTOZOA Method
              Eimeria spp. Micro
              Entamoeba Micro
              Endoparasites (tapeworms, pinworms, and other helminths) Micro
              Flagellatas (e.g. Giardia muris, Spironucleus muris, etc.) Micro
              Toxoplasma gondii PCR
              Ectoparasites, e.g., fleas, mites, and lice Micro
              Ciliata Micro
              Encephalitozoon?cunicul PCR
              OTHER Method
              Pinworms PCR
              Furmites PCR


              Additionally, GemPharmatech partners with several respected institutions and organizations to breed and house mice. For information on the health monitoring and testing practices of these facilities, please contact us.

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